Dwarf Planets

What are dwarf planets of the solar system ?

In this new section you can find a detailed description of the dwarf planets of the solar system . Pluto was the ninth planet and is now a dwarf planet. On the other hand we have Ceres , Eris , Makemake and Haumea .

The dwarf planet renamed the data of the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union August 24, 2006 held in Prague ( Czech Republic ), more precisely the name of Plutoid belongs to the dwarf planets that are beyond the orbit of Pluto , so both plutoids are: Eris , Makemake and Haumea , while dwarf planet Ceres is only but not » plutoid » as it is before Pluto’s orbit in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

By convention of such meeting certain guidelines have been established to determine in the future that celestial body falls under the category of dwarf planet.

Dwarf planets definition:

1) It has an orbit around the sun
2) It has enough mass to be spherical in shape
3) It is a satellite of a planet.
4) It has failed to clean the spaces neighbors into its orbit , drawing or expelling other celestial bodies in the way.

As you will notice the only difference between planet and dwarf planet is the fourth category , namely , if the celestial body has made clear its orbit , drawing or expelling other celestial bodies in the way.
Dwarf planets do not have enough dough aside to attract or alter the orbit of its neighbors and in turn the heavenly bodies that are in the orbit of the dwarf planets are not massive enough to be altered in its orbit , this is determined by a coefficient called » planetary Discriminant »

While Pluto was demoted from planet status , the nearby asteroid Ceres had better luck and ascended asteroid category to the new category of » dwarf planet » . Ceres is located very close to our planet Earth in the asteroid belt which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

Eris , dwarf planet ( the Greek goddess of discord )
It is rather inclined to the plane of the Earth , about 44 degrees , the object with more tilt the solar system , and this inclination has been responsible for that astronomers will take until 2005 to find out because it is not focused too much inclination objects , also is the planet furthest from the sun in its orbit , three times farther than Pluto about 16 billion kilometers, as seen in the image on the right .

Eris ‘s diameter is about 2,400 miles , about 10 kilometers larger than Pluto also has a mass 27% larger than Pluto , about 1.66 × 1022 kilograms mass . Earth takes 557 years to orbit the sun, rotating at a speed of 3.4 kilometers per second , at this time ( 2012 ) is at the farthest point from the sun to a distance of 97 times the distance between the earth and the sun , when it is the closest distance to the sun is about 38 times the distance from earth to sun. ( The distance from the earth to the sun is called Astronomical Unit )
The surface temperature is 30 degrees Plutoid about 243.15 degrees Kelvin BELOW FREEZING ( Recall that absolute zero is -273.15 ° C or zero degrees Kelvin ) . These features are very similar to Pluto is that put society of astronomers at a crossroads : either call the tenth planet ERIS or demote Pluto to dwarf planet status and consider Eris and Pluto ‘s twin , the latter option was chosen and our solar system with eight planets stayed five dwarf planets .

Eris and its moon Dysnomia

Eris is a dwarf planet , but within that category is a trans-Neptunian object as it is located beyond the orbit of Neptune , but also a Plutoid and also exceeds the orbit of Pluto , is located in the scattered disk Belt Kuiper

Eris was discovered by the team of astronomers Michel Brown Professor California Institute of Technology (Caltech ) , Chadwick A. «Chad » Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory astronomer in Hawaii and David Rabinowitz of Yale University , in January 2005, but was announced only in July this year to make sure they were looking at the photographs corresponded to a planet and rule out was a comet or other object like an asteroid .
Eris has a moon itself ( natural satellite ) that it has been named Dysnomia ( daughter of Eris , Goddess of civil disorder and illegality )

The first pictures were taken in October 2003 , but the computer software did not account for the object as it was far away and did not seem to get around the slow orbit that has Eris , just in new pictures taken two years later computers fired a warning about the possibility that the object was a planet even larger than Pluto, the January 5, 2005 confirmed the discovery and is called on a temporary basis as » 2003 UB313 » then internally among astronomers discoverers XENA or Sedna named in honor of the television series «Xena: Warrior princess » internal name until at IAU vote the current name was chosen , but Eris has a natural satellite that is initially called Gabrielle Xena ‘s companion on his travels. Then the final name of the satellite has been as » Dysnomia » which means inter alia: » No Law» in a wink humor in honor of the television series Xena , as the actress who starred Lucy Lawless is called ( translation of the name : » No Law») , the actress has also had a role in the multi award-winning series Battlestar Galactica ( reimagined )

Dysnomia , moon of Eris :
Little is known yet about Dysnomia , has been discovered on September 10, 2005 by the same team of astronomers who discovered Eris , besides the engineering team from the Keck Observatory in Hawaii.
The size of the satellite is the eighth of the dwarf planet Eris, was about 350 miles díametro and terestres takes about 15 days to orbit the planet , thanks to this discovery could establish the mass of Eris as a planet with little mass would have caused a slower rate of your TV.

Makemake : ( God created the world )

His name is related to the religion of Easter Island as the descubrimierno was during the week of Easter 2005 thereby elected the creator God of the Earth ( Make-Make ) for religion pascuense

At the time of writing ( June 2013 ) Make Make had no known moon and the odds of which comes to very few .

. Dwarf planet ‘s discovery was announced the same day the Eris and Haumea , on July 29, 2005

It has a similiar size to Eris , but is much brighter . It is the third largest in the new list of dwarf planets, as the largest in size is Eris , Pluto and third then follows is Makemake .
The most recent observations located 1480 kilometers in diameter with a margin of error of 20 miles. The total area of Makemake is about 7 million square kilometers , to give us an idea of size , the United States has nearly 10 million square kilometers .

Location :
Makemake is located in the so-called Kuiper belt , together with another dwarf planet named Haumea .

The farthest distance from the Sun ( Aphelion ) is 53 astronomical units while when it is at a shorter distance to the sun ( perihelion ) encuenta 38.5 astronomical units .

We also highlight the Kuiper belt object Quaoar which is half the size of Pluto , but astronomers have not yet decided whether it will be an asteroid , an object smaller or dwarf planet.

Makemake is a dwarf planet and is also a Plutoid as it lies beyond the orbit of Pluto , but he had also been classified as icy planetesimal since these planteas temperatures are less than 243 degrees below zero ( only about 30 kelvin) . Both the surface and the atmosphere may have been frozen .

Makemake orbits the sun every 309 years Earth traveling at a speed of 4,419 km / s . Currently Makemake is located in the constellation of » Coma Berenice » . In 1930 he was just a few degrees from Pluto but the technology is not allow its observation time by the American astronomer Clyde William Tombaugh .

Haumea : ( Goddess of Fertility )

It is a dwarf planet and Plutoid , is the third brightest after Pluto and Makemake whereby a large amateur telescope can be seen by anyone.
Name: In the Hawaiian religion responsible Haumea is the goddess of fertility and the Goddess of births , births protective Haumea has five children , the two moons are named after two of his sons and Namaka Hiiaka ..
It has a third the mass of Pluto , but the big difference is that Haumea is shaped circumference but ellipsoid , so hardly reaches the dwarf planet status could only be as asteroid. The major axis of Haumea is twice the minor axis to give us an idea of its shape. The diameters are : 1960 1520 miles long kms . of width and height of 996 kilometers.

Suspected cases this elongated and two ‘ moons ‘ are the result of a collision with another large object that left him that way and he » gave » both natural satellites .

Haumea is in the Scattered Disk and takes a full turn to the sun 283 Earth years , the closest distance to the sun was in the year 1992 ( when we had not yet discovered ) that distance is 35 astronomical units ( 35 times the distance from Earth to the sun), the farthest distance from the sun ( Aphelion ) is 51 astronomical units .

The planet rotates very quickly , it is suspected that turns around on itself every four hours , that suspicion is because brightness change every four hours , will require more sophisticated instruments or any spacecraft in the future to confirm this rotation .

Haumea has two » Moons » , was baptized with the moons and Namaka Hiiaka name .


The dwarf planet Ceres asteroid went from being the largest ( in the asteroid belt ) to be considered the smallest of the dwarf planets, this happened also in the famous General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union August 24, 2006 .

It was discovered in 1801 by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi . Since its discovery Ceres has undergone several classifications. The first 50 years was considered a planet , then the discovery of the Jovian planets (Jupiter , Saturn , Uranus and Neptune ) was demoted to the asteroid ( for being in the asteroid belt ) , this condition has been preserved to the 21st century Astronomical Union when it rose to the new name » Dwarf Planet » . While NASA still called dual form as the largest asteroid and dwarf planet smaller.

It is located in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter , has a third of the mass of all the bodies of the asteroid belt. The most accepted theory is that the asteroid belt is what remains of a possible planet formation between the two orbits , this training was unfinished .

It has a shaft and a shaft 960 kilometers 930 miles , so it is quite spherical shape for this type of objects.

Ceres has water frozen in a blanket of 100 kilometers thick and a rocky core , containing more fresh water than Earth itself , but completely frozen encuenta as the maximum temperature of the planet is 34 degrees below zero, but even so low temperatures do not rule out the presence of shaped living microorganisms.

The year of Ceres takes 4 ½ years land about , traveling around the sun at an average speed of nearly 18 kilometers per second.
The day on Ceres lasts only 9 Earth hours .

The closest distance to the sun is 2.5 Astronomical Units as furthest from the sun is 3 astronomical units .

The Hubble Space Telescope photographed and discovered a giant crater Crater Piazzi was named in honor of the astronomer who discovered the dwarf planet.

In 2015 space mission » Mission Dawn » will hit after visiting Vespa Ceres , one of the satellites of Jupiter

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